Central Processing Unit is cpu full form. There are a lot of names for the central processing unit, or CPU. Therefore its sometimes called the “central processor.” It is one part on your computer that does all of those things you see happening before your eyes when you’re using it: clicking and moving around windows in an application; playing music with iTunes (Apple’s media player); running antivirus scans to make sure there aren’t any nasty viruses lurking within!
- The CPU is the brain of your computer.
- It can be compared to a human brain in that it does all the thinking and processing.
- There are two main types of CPUs – Central Processing Units, which are used for desktop PCs, laptops, tablets, and smartphones; and Graphics Processing Units (GPUs), which are designed specifically for graphics-intensive applications such as gaming or video editing.
- A CPU has four major components – the ALU (arithmetic logic unit), control unit, register file and memory management unit.
- An ALU performs arithmetic operations on data according to instructions from other parts of the CPU.
- The control unit manages everything that happens inside the processor.
C = Central
P = Processing
U = Unit
what is cpu?
Computer processors are the brains of a computer system. They interpret and execute instructions, which direct fundamental operations on data (for example, adding two numbers). The term has also come to mean processor chip or collection of chips that can be integrated onto a motherboard. A CPU comprises four parts:
1. Control unit
2. Arithmetic-logic unit (ALU)
3. Main memory
4. Input/Output devices [modem , monitor, keyboard, mouse, LAN card etc.
What is Control unit?
The Control unit has the fastest speed and greatest storage capacity of all computing device components. It is usually a small chip, which can be compared to data processing center inside computer . Because it plays an important role in executing program instructions , its structure and arrangement are quite standardized among all currently available CPUs.
Though the control unit’s design varies depending on both performance requirements and technology used, most contemporary CPU architectures follow the Von Neumann architecture model, so their internal structures tend to be similar. The control unit is closely connected with other parts of the system – memory (RAM), input/output devices (disk drives, display screens), etc., via busses (data lines). Its main job is managing the transfer of information between these elements by converting computer program’s binary code into the signals that control hardware. The operation of a CPU can best be described as follows:
The control unit receives instructions from memory via its address and data lines (busses). It reads these instructions, executes them (‘runs’ them) if it can, and then usually writes any results back to memory over the same address/data busses. Different CPUs have different instruction sets (sets of possible instructions), but most modern ones execute so-called Von Neumann compilers well enough – i.e., with reasonable speed and small delays between consecutive commands .
What is Arithmetic-logic unit (ALU)?
A CPU consists of a number of hardware units; Arithmetic-logic unit (ALU) performs different types of arithmetic and logic operations. Even though it is called as ALU, it does not only contain Arithmetic Logic Unit (ALU). It contains adder, multiplier etc.
The ALUs job is to do simple mathematical operations on numbers that are held in registers in the computer. The results are usually stored back in the register after they are computed and the results need not be displayed or even saved anywhere else for further use by the program. In addition to storing and manipulating data, some ALUs can also perform logical functions such as ANDing two operands together. These Logical operation’s combine TRUE and FALSE values into a new value and are used for decision making processes
An ALU is made up of the following components :-
Register File: It is a collection of Registers or RAM cells that hold data to be manipulated by ALU. There can be different types of register files, like general purpose registers(GPRs), floating point registers, address registers etc. The number of GPRs differs from architecture to architecture. For example, i386 CPU has 8 GPRs while z/Architecure has 127 GPRs.
Memory Access Unit (MAU): Job of MAU is to transfers values between CPU’s internal memory and its external interface e.g Memory bus or Cache line in case if it exists on cpu chip. When a program is executed by CPU, it has to store the values of registers into memory using MAU. If there is Cache line(on Chip) then each cache line can hold multiple bytes and can be shared between ALU/FPU for data transfer purpose.
Memory Address Unit (MAU): Job of MAU is to address memory to read/write data from/to it. ALU or Memory access unit may generate addresses in order to locate data inside memory e.g Branch Instruction .
Branch Instruction : Some instruction set architectures provides instructions that allows us to control branch execution flow e.g Jcc: Jump on condition code ,JMP: Jump always if not taken etc. These conditions will affect decision making process inside CPU.
What is Input/Output devices?
Input Output devices are the interface that connects your computer to other equipment and to outside world. It is also called I/O device. In every computers there are a number of these devices which work together in order to make us able to see, hear, communicate and store information. Those input and output devices include: display screens, keyboards, mice, printers , scanners etc. They can be any one or more than one depending on the type of system you use : desktop PC, laptop PC’s etc.
what is gpu?
Programmers have seen some applications that can only run on GPU, which means they need a powerful system or a graphics card.
what is memory?
The term “memory” has come to mean both the RAM and the SSD (hard disk). The capacity and speed of RAM can be measured in gigabytes, while hard-disk storage space is typically measured by gigabyte as well. Memory can be both volatile and nonvolatile. Volatile memory loses its stored information when the computer (or device) loses power, while non-volatile memory retains information through a loss of power.
There are multiple types of storage; some have been developed to improve performance while reducing cost, and others for high capacity at low cost. The latter are typically used for mass storage.
what is solid state disk?
SSD (solid-state drive), also known as a solid-state disk, is a hard disk drive that uses integrated circuit assemblies as memory to store data persistently. SSD technology primarily uses electronic interfaces compatible with traditional block input/output (I/O) hard disk drives, which permit simple replacements in common applications.